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Trial of Four British Seamen at Canton, 1 October 1807: Scene Inside the Court

Oil paintings

Object connections:

Collection Oil paintings, Fine art, Maritime Art Greenwich
ExhibitionsTraders: The East India Company and Asia
User collections Tea: breaking into the tea trade by NMMExhibitions
Gallery locationTraders Gallery (Floor plans)

Object details:

Object ID BHC0581
Description A scene showing the Chinese Court of Justice held at the British factory of Canton, 8 March 1807. The court was convened after a Chinese man was killed by rioting sailors from the East Indiaman 'Neptune'. While on shore leave at Canton, sailors from the ship became involved in a disturbance resulting in the death of one and the wounding of several Chinese. Trade by English ships was stopped and an investigation was held. In the presence of the British authorities there was an inquiry into a charge of homicide laid against a seaman from the 'Neptune'. The Chinese magistrate found one seaman guilty of accidental homicide and ordered that he be detained in the English factory. The rest of the 52 men were acquitted. Trade was resumed after two months' stoppage. In the next year the seaman was released on payment of about £4, the penalty prescribed by Chinese law for accidental killing. The incident is described in some detail by Archibald Campbell, seaman from the East Indiaman 'Thames', in 'A voyage round the World from 1806 to 1812' (Edinburgh,1816: also recast by Stanley Porteus as 'The Restless Voyage' [London,1949]). Seated on the right of the court are the Hong merchants who controlled trade between China and Europe, Puankhequa, Mowqua, Puiqua and Consequa. Facing them are the leading British merchants and officials in Canton, Robert Rolles, John Roberts, Thomas Pattle, William Bamston, and George Thomas Staunton. In front of the three judges a British seaman is being questioned by a Chinese official and four more seamen stand in a group in the centre left foreground. Two British soldiers are positioned on either side in the front of the scene. A Chinese man is shown striking a gong behind the soldier on the right while another holds a gong behind the one on the left. The painting shows men crowding in from the right in an effort to hear the proceedings. There is close attention to architectural detail and the inclusion of the curtain at the back gives the scene a theatrical appearance. The painting was probably made from an engraving done on the spot by a local artist; see also BHC0580.
Date made 19th century

Artist/Maker Chinese School, 19th century
Credit National Maritime Museum, Greenwich, London. Caird Fund.
Materials oil on canvas
Measurements Painting: 711 mm x 1016 mm; Frame: 795 mm x 1102 mm x 50 mm
  • Trial of Four British Seamen at Canton, 1 October 1807: Scene Inside the Court (BHC0581)
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